5 Things You Should Know About Corrosives and FRP

corrosion resistanceIn our last post we talked about the need for education about FRP, and now we’re putting our money where our mouth is. Here are the 5 things you need to know about FRP and corrosives.

  1. When acids and bases attack and corrode metals; dangerous gases can often be given off.  For example, common bases such as sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide in concentration have been known to attack aluminum, zinc, galvanized metal and tin and give of hydrogen gas. 

FRP can be formulated to be corrosion resistant and have demonstrated long life cycles in extreme industrial environments.  For example, FRP gas scrubbing systems, at a phosphate fertilizer plant, exposed to aggressive flu gases consisting of hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and phosphate dust at 60˚ C had a service life of 50 years—stainless steel could not withstand the highly corrosive mixture.  There are many more examples.

  1. Hydrogen gas is flammable and will burn or explode if an ignition source is present. 

Because FRP will not corrode there is no risk of releasing flammable gases such as hydrogen.  Hydrogen gas forms explosive mixtures with air if it is 4–74% concentrated and with chlorine if it is 5–95% concentrated. H2 mixtures can spontaneously explode by spark, heat or sunlight if proper conditions are present. H2 reacts with every oxidizing element. Hydrogen can react spontaneously and violently at room temperature with chlorine and fluorine.  Why take a chance?

  1. Contact with corrosives can damage containers, equipment, installations, and building components made from unsuitable materials.

FRP will not corrode; it will thrive and endure in stringent conditions where other materials fall short or fail.  FRP has been used successfully in a wide variety of applications in chemical processing, mining and minerals, nuclear, desalination, waste water treatment, nuclear, pulp and paper, and petrochemical. 

  1. Some corrosives are flammable, combustible, and can easily catch fire, burn, or explode.

FRP offer versatility, durability, design flexibility and superior containment.  FRP can be formulated to be corrosion and abrasion resistant, as well as, smoke and fire retardant.  FRP are not combustible.  FRP will not spark and will enhance the safety of your project.

  1. Corrosives can be incompatible with other chemicals.  They may undergo dangerous chemical reactions that yield or give off toxic fumes.

Why take a chance with toxic fumes, dangerous chemical reactions, and explosions? Use the proper material to protect your equipment, installations…and your future.  Protect your investments, enhance safety and employ FRP—the cost-effective choice that will solve many of your corrosion problems. 

FRP Corrosion Control: Education Can Improve Opportunities

frp corrosionIf you’ve been paying attention to fiberglass trends you’d know that corrosion, a serious problem that pits and corrodes most metals and metal alloys, has created huge market opportunities for Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) including pipe, duct, and tanks.  Despite the many opportunities FRP manufactures have seized over the years, some major obstacles still persist, chief among them is education—or getting the word out. 

According to a 2012 article published in Composite Technologies, titled “Industrial Corrosion Control: Huge Opportunities,” lack of awareness or understanding of FRP benefits is ubiquitous among engineers.  There are a handful of other agents at work which have hindered FRP gaining traction in some industries.  Among them are a general unfamiliarity with FRP products; engineers are unsure of what resins or glass to select, reluctance to try a new material, thermal performance, the inability to distinguish good manufactures from bad, engineering departments at higher-education institutes, and economic paradigms.

Another commonly sighted impediment to FRP growth is new technological advancements and the uncertainties that they bring.  According to a 2009 study, released by the World Corrosion Organization, one such example is evident when considering carbon sequestration technology. Specifically, regarding large-scale underground storage of carbon dioxide, (generated from power plant exhaust gases), where nearly 40 pilot sites have been proposed, 10 of which are in the U.S. 

The report points out that the integrity of downhole tubing and cementing is strongly endangered by CO2 corrosion due to much more severe environmental conditions than normally encountered in traditional oil and gas production.   FRP are viewed by many as a cost-effective choice in instances like this because of their known abilities to withstand stringent, corrosive environments and demonstrate long life cycles with lower maintenance costs, but it will be up to manufactures and suppliers of FRP materials to make the case for composites and help educate and assist engineers.

More research is currently underway examining the environmental conditions and stresses that the material will be exposed to.  The many unknowns associated with Carbon and Capture Storage (CCS) technologies will need to be reviewed thoroughly—unknown concentrations of impurities such as oxygen, carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur-containing gases like sulfur dioxide (SO2) or hydrogen sulfide (H2S) that are inevitably present in exhaust gases and are expected to be corrosive.  FRP are seen as a potential material solution in this for piping and other construction materials under such conditions.

Geothermal power production is another example where big opportunities for FRP exist with increased education and outreach.  In the geothermal industry, corrosion of plant equipment and structures within and around geothermal power generation facilities can be a major problem.  Issues with corrosion primarily arise due to the presence of salts, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and silicates in the geothermal water, which cause localized corrosion and scale formation in wells and casings and power generating equipment. 

In both CCS and geothermal, technological advances have created new opportunities for FRP.   Many experts within each of these industries view FRP as a potential material solution for a variety of applications, but to overcome skepticism and uncertainty, education outreach efforts will need to be increased. Economic paradigms have already begun to shift in the past five to seven years, as the price of  metals have steadily rose allowing FRP to compete head to head against stainless steel and other alloys.  The bottom line is that as education regarding FRP continues so will the opportunities. 

For more information on our FRP and its uses, please visit us at http://www.beetlecomposites.com

FRP for Ferric Chloride Tanks and Waste Water Treatment

ferric chloride tankFerric chloride or FeCl3, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound that has many important industrial applications. When dissolved in water, FeCl3 undergoes hydrolysis and gives off heat in an exothermic reaction. The resulting brown, acidic, and corrosive solution is used as a flocculant in sewage treatment and drinking water production, and as an etchant for copper-based metals in printed circuit boards.

Ferric chloride is used in many industrial and sanitary wastewater treatment applications, due to its high efficiency, effectiveness in clarification, and utility as a sludge dewatering agent. Ferric chloride is sought after in waste water treatment because it is a superb flocculating and precipitating agent that can absorb colloids, clays, and bacteria.  Furthermore, ferric chloride is also one of the few water treatment chemicals that can sequester odors.

FRP and Ferric Chloride

Fiberglass Reinforced Polymers (FRP) have been used in the construction of corrosion resistant equipment in a multitude of applications including hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, caustic soda, and ferric chloride.  Our FRP offer superior corrosion resistance for ferric chloride at all concentrations.  As such, FRP corrosion resistant tanks are ideal for transportation, handling, and processing of ferric chloride and other corrosive materials. Where steel and other alloys fall short, FRP endures and outperforms conventional materials with lower maintenance costs, longer life cycles, and overall durability.

In the waste water industry, FRP are typically used for clarifiers, basins, tanks, reservoirs, filters(e.g. trickling, roughing, bio), scum baffles, weirs, flumes (e.g. Cutthroat, Parshall, Palmer-Bowlus), influent/effluent channels, gates, stop logs, skimmers and manholes, filter media support grids, elevated platforms and walkways, odor covers, trench and vault covers —among much else.

In the past, ferric chloride tanks were primarily constructed out of rubber lined steel or plastic lined steel, however FRP are now considered a cost-effective alternative that offer many benefits. We offer exceptional FRP that perform well in waste water environments.  Our composites are lightweight, high strength, corrosion/rot resistant, will not swell, or take on moisture, and can be retrofitted to existing municipal and industrial water and wastewater systems.

FRP for Structural Repairs – The Advantages of Structural FRP

frp repairRecently featured by Energy-Tech Magazine, “ASME: Repair of pressure boundary and structural components with composites,” by John Charest is a great overview of the advantages of FRP when used for structural repairs.

“Deterioration of components and structures at power generating facilities has caused unscheduled plant outages, personnel safety concerns and significant impact on operating budgets. However, a new technology is available that can increase the usable life of components and structures, while significantly reducing the economic burden normally associated with repair or replacement options.” The new technology? Fiberglass reinforced polymers (FRP) of course.

FRP repairs offer a number of advantages over other material choices. FRPs tend to be light weight but strong and, “are comprised of high strength fibers in an epoxy matrix… These long fibers tend to have fewer defects, which leads to stiffer, stronger properties.” While strength is undoubtedly a huge advantage, one of the biggest advantages is the ease with which FRP repairs can be performed. “The work is performed quickly and can often be completed during regularly scheduled shutdown times.” The ability to perform repairs without plant downtime is a huge boon. The exact repair procedure is determined by the type of repair needed and the surface material the FRP will be applied over.

According to Charest, “Many of the FRP installations currently in-service at power generation facilities have been utilized to repair piping. Primarily, these installations have been made by applying the FRP on the inside of the piping. These applications have successfully provided pressure boundary and structural integrity.” FRP can also be used as, “a structurally acceptable method to rehabilitate aging plant equipment, piping and structures,” says Charest.

High strength-to-weight ratio, dimensional stability, long service life, and reduced maintenance cost combined with ease of installation make FRP an ideal repair material.

To read the full article, click here.

FRP for HCL Applications

frp for hclThere are many applications for hydrochloric acid (HCL).  From the manufacturing of high fructose corn syrup, dyes, phenols, and plastics to chemical intermediates such as ferric chloride which is used as a flocculant in sewage treatment and drinking water production. 

From picking, metal cleaning, to the ore reduction of metals (i.e. vanadium, tantalum, tungsten and tin) —hydrochloric acid has proven its usefulness throughout many industries.

Regardless of your industry if you use HCL you need a safe and economical way to handle this corrosive material.  FRP is an ideal solution for handling corrosive materials offering a myriad of benefits that will save money over the long-term.  The inherent corrosion resistant characteristic of our FRP makes it a cost-effective, strong, light-weight solution for corrosion resistant equipment applications in the chemical process industries and in water and waste water treatment areas.  Similarly, the design flexibility of FRP allows it to be adapted very easily to fill niche roles in many other industries, for example, food and beverage, pharmaceutical, and HVAC.

FRP Has Long Service Life in Corrosive Environments

In a filament wound composite pipe, the cost of adding a corrosion barrier/liner is not all that great in comparison to the true cost of the pipe. The selection of the proper type and thickness of the corrosion barrier/liner can more than double the service life of the pipe.

FRP has a distinct advantage over metal alloys, such as titanium, and rubber-lined steel with lower installation costs, reduced maintenance, and long service life proven with over 20 years of successful operating experience at many plants and facilities around the world. More importantly, FRP is recognized as having superior corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance when compared to specialty alloy metals, in stringent chemical processing and in aggressive hydrometallurgical environments.

HCL Applications

  • Manufacture of Dyes, Phenols and Plastics.
  • Ore reduction (manganese, radium, vanadium, tantalum, tin and tungsten)
  • Food processing (corn, syrup, sodium glutamate)
  • Pickling and metal cleaning
  • Water treatment – Resin regeneration and demineralizers
  • Manufacture of chemical intermediates, such as FeCl3, ZnCL2, AlCl3, etc.
  • General Cleaning in households and in commercial, industrial and institutional establishments.

FRP Chemical Processing Applications

In the chemical processing industry FRP are typically used for pipes, ductwork, storage tanks and basins, absorption towers, drying towers, solvent extraction vessels, gas scrubbers, packed reaction columns, pressure vessels, process reaction vessels, stacks, process containment equipment, packing support systems, packed bed distributors, bed limiters, and distributor feed headers—to list some examples.  We offer FRP solutions; new design or an incremental improvement that will interface into an existing design—we have the capacity and capabilities to enhance your project.

Corrosion Resistance: FRP for Copper Recovery Systems

corrosion resistance and copper recovery systemsThere are many advantages to using Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP); high strength-to-weight ratio, dimensional stability, long service life, and reduced maintenance cost—to name a few.  FRP can also be formulated with enhanced properties such as corrosion and abrasion resistance and smoke and flame retardance.  In many stringent industrial applications, including copper recovery, where other materials fall short FRP has the ability to endure, thrive, and perform. 

FRP is commonly used as a cost-effective material solution because it can be formulated to withstand strong acids, bases, and organic compounds.   Moreover, FRP is recognized as having superior corrosion resistance, when compared to specialty alloy metals, in aggressive hydrometallurgical and chemical process environments.

Copper Recovery

The copper recovery process is dynamic and has been simplified over time with the development of chemical processes and other technological advances.  In copper recovery systems many of the chemicals/compounds that are used are hazardous and highly corrosive.  For this reason, careful planning and thought must go into what building materials are selected for facilities.  FRP has evolved in concert with the ever-changing metal and extraction industry and is now poised to fill many material niches.

In the copper recovery industry FRP is currently filling a niche as a cost-effective, corrosion resistant material, which can be utilized for many processes and applications including:

  • Leaching
  • Stripping
  • Solvent extraction
  • Sulfuric acid
  • Copper sulfate electrolytes 

In the copper recovery process copper is leached from ore with sulphuric acid and is easily recovered in a pure metallic form by the well known process of solvent extraction. At the center of the process is the copper recovery reagent that is used to selectively extract copper from the aqueous leach solution.  In general terms, the copper recovery process can be broken down into three basic steps: leaching (sulfuric acid), solvent extraction, and stripping (high acidity coppers sulfate electrolytes).  Beyond these three steps, the process of copper recovery has many areas where FRP products can be used; for example, transportation, storage, and general infrastructure needs. 


FRP offers design flexibility; in metal extraction and refining industries it can be used for pipes, ductwork, tanks, solvent extraction vessels absorption towers, basins, floor coverings, grating, and electrowinning tankhouses— just to name a few.   Case in point, FRP grating has been successfully used as a walkway/platform material in copper recovery systems around vats in the electrowinning process.

Whether you’re handling corrosive compounds such as sulfuric acid or high acidity extractants and stripping agents, FRP will withstand the harshest environments and is a corrosion resistant, cost-effective choice.  In the metal and extractions industry FRP has a distinct advantage over metal alloys, including titanium, and rubber-lined steel with lower installation costs, reduced maintenance, and long service life proven with over 20 yrs of successful operating experience at many plants/facilities around the world.

FRP Sustainability, Green Construction and LEED

frp sustainabilitySustainability is big word these days.  It can mean a lot of different things, depending on the context—it can also be overused or misunderstood.  In recent years the demand for more green construction or sustainable construction has been driven largely by consumers in the construction sector.

In this context, sustainable construction aims at reducing the environmental impact of a building of its entire lifetime, while optimizing its economic viability.  The benefits of green construction are many; lower operating costs, increased asset value, reduced waste sent to landfills, conservation of energy and water, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions, for example. 

That’s all fine and well—but have you ever stopped to think how Fiber Reinforced Polymers fit into this equation?   Currently, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) products are a cost-effective material choice in many green construction circumstances. Furthermore, as their international recognition and reputation as an ecologically sustainable product continues to grow, so do the uses and applications.  For FRP manufactures this is good news.

The LEED Program (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) was developed by the U.S. Green Building Council to provide a framework for implementing practical and measurable green building solutions. The LEED green building rating system is the internationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction and operation of green buildings. Voluntary participation in the program by builders demonstrates initiative to develop high performance sustainable buildings with energy savings, lower carbon footprints, and environmental responsibility. 

FRP products are gaining more attention as a LEED recognized, or certifiable environmentally sustainable building material. For example FRP products can now qualify for many credits under the LEED building rating system such as Energy Performance, Regional Materials, and Heat Island Effect—to name a few.

When composites are compared to other traditional materials such as concrete, wood or terra cotta, the total life-cycle assessment of fiberglass contributes to its viability as a green building product. When consideration is taken for the energy consumed in production, installation and environmental sustainability, fiberglass products generate a much smaller impact than other traditional materials and can be used in ways that are less energy or carbon intensive.

Energy Performance

One of the key attributes of composites, which makes it a LEED recognized green material, is its thermal integrity—minimizes heat loss during winter and heat gain during summer. 

Key Green Building Considerations

  • Light Weight- reduces transportation costs, less need for heavy lifting on-site
  • Less Dead Weight-less structural material is required, reduces resource consumption
  • Long Lifespan-durability, resists environmental degradation
  • Resistance- corrosion, rot, mildew, mold, insects; reduces replacement costs and the use of toxic chemicals used in maintenance
  • Maximizes Energy Performance
  • Environmentally Responsible Material Choice- LEED recognized

FRP architectural components are highly desirable for their design flexibility, high strength-to weight ratio, cost-effectiveness, flame retardance, and overall durability.  Added to the list now is the potential for internationally recognized LEED credits.  For example, as a builder you can achieve credits (on path to certification) for using locally or regionally sourced materials, innovative design, and moisture management components (e.g. our fiberglass products are impervious to water, and will not rot or swell) —among much else. 

There are many categories, classifications, credentials, prerequisites, and credits to understand for the voluntary LEED Certification and the onus is always on the builder.  With single-source design-build capabilities we can help you.  We offer a wide variety of custom composite products/components for a wide range of architectural applications and green construction projects.  Contact us.

LEED: http://new.usgbc.org/leed

Is FRP Combustible?

is frp combustibleFiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) and Combustion

Combustion/fire is a serious concern regardless of the industry.  Fire resistant composites are essential for numerous applications including construction materials, structural heat resistant barriers, fire proofing, and generally speaking, improved thermal stability.

Heat Resistant Phenol Resins

One remarkable advantage of using custom Fiberglass Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is that they can be designed, formulated and manufactured per your requirements.  When discussing combustion, heat, or fire resistance, in terms of FRP, it is important to consider composition of laminates, resins, and enhancements such as fillers, additives, and modifiers.

Enhancement of Phenol Resin Matrices

In some cases, resins matrices may be enhanced with the addition of fillers, additives and modifiers to demonstrate improved heat resistance. There are specially filled resins which exhibit fire retardance features to insulate and protect structures from jet fires or extreme temperatures from nitro combustion (burning of film materials).

The advantages of FRP laminates in case of combustion or heat:

  • No auto-propagation of flame
  • Very low smoke development
  • Very low toxic fume emission
  • Low heat release
  • No release of flammable vapors
  • Very low loss of strength at high operating temperatures up to 200 ºC
  • Low thermal conductivity

Fillers, Additives, and Modifiers

Many of the enhanced qualities, such as heat resistance, are the result unique material formulations, for example, using fillers, additives and modifiers in the manufacturing process.  Similarly, it has been demonstrated that stabilizers can help to mitigate the effects of prolonged exposure to heat, and are an essential ingredient when creating durable heat resistant FRP.

Hydration Fillers

Included in this category are materials containing ATH (alumina trihydrate), bromine, chlorine, borate, and phosphorus.  The filler alumina tri-hydrate is frequently used in this application because it gives off water when exposed to high temperatures thereby reducing flame spread and development of smoke.  Another common hydration filler used for fire resistance throughout the fiberglass industry is calcium sulfate.


Simply put, heat stabilizers are additives that protect or reduce the effects of heat or radiation on plastics or polymers.  In some cases, heat stabilizers are used in thermoplastic systems to inhibit polymer degradation that results from exposure to heat.  The effectiveness of the stabilizers against weathering (heat degradation, UV radiation etc.) depends on solubility, ability to stabilize in different polymer matrices, the distribution in matrices, and evaporation loss during processing and use.

Heat stabilizers are mainly used for construction products made of polyvinyl chloride, for instance window profiles, pipes and cable ducts.  However, it is also important in the manufacturing of FRP and the uses/applications are potentially limitless.

Composite Expertise

With our composite expertise and precision manufacturing capabilities, we are prepared to help you with your high-temperature composite needs. 

Corrosion Resistance Makes FRP Ideal for Handling Sodium Hypochlorite

handling sodium hypochlorite

There are many compounds used in industrial processes that require special considerations and materials when handling them.  Sodium Hypochlorite (NaClO) is not an exception.  NaClO is an unstable compound that is used in water purification, typically on a large-scale for surface purification, bleaching, odor removal, and water disinfection. Sodium hypochlorite is poisonous for water organisms- hence its use in water purification and water treatment.

Developed in France, in the late 1700’s, it has been used both domestically and industrially (originally to whiten cotton), for its stain removal and bleaching/whitening abilities. Sodium hypochlorite is a clear, slightly yellowish solution with a characteristic odor.  As a bleaching agent for home use it usually contains 5% sodium hypochlorite with a pH of around 11.

In an industrial application, it most likely contains concentrations of approximately10-15% sodium hypochlorite (with a pH of around 13, it burns and is corrosive). Because this compound is unstable and corrosive special regulations and specifications must be met when processing or handling it. Fiberglass Reinforced Polymers (FRP), provide a perfect answer to handling this and other chemical compounds.

FRP custom products are unique in many ways, but one attribute has gotten a lot of attention recently- corrosion resistance.  FRP products can be formulated with special resins and advanced laminate scheduling techniques to provide a corrosive or abrasive barrier. This is particularly useful in FRP products such as pipe, ductwork, tanks, basins, and vessels. 

How does Sodium Hypochlorite React with Water?

Understanding the connection or chemical reaction that takes place between water and sodium hypochlorite can help to illustrate the inherent attributes that make FRP so valuable.  The reaction that takes place my interest you.

Some basic information; when sodium hypochlorite is dissolved into water two things transpire.  First, the pH of the water is increased. Secondly, two things form as a result of the chemical reaction: hypochlorous acid and the more inert hypochlorite ion. 

How are Sodium Hypochlorite and Hydrochloric Acid Connected?

In some circumstances when sodium hypochlorite or any compound is used in a process, another reagent must be used to counteract it effects.  In this case, the chemical reagents typically used to lower the pH of the water (during treatment) after it has increased, are hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), or acetic acid (CH3CO2H).  FRP is an excellent material choice for handling corrosive, unstable, and acidic compounds.

FRP Has a Key Role in This Process

Because FRP products are so versatile and have many desirable attributes (i.e. corrosion resistance) they are the ideal choice for storage, processing, and hauling of chemicals.  Another often overlooked benefit of FRP is that it is a non-reactive surface, which is critical when dealing with many chemical compounds such as sodium hypochlorite, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. FRP products can also be customized to meet industry regulations, specifications, and codes. 

FRP Solves Hydrochloric Acid Storage and Transportation Problems

hydrochloric acid storage tanksHydrochloric Acid (HCL) also known as Muriatic Acid is a corrosive, stable mineral acid that is clear to slightly yellowish in color.  Its versatility lends itself well to many industrial uses including hydraulic fracturing, pulp and paper, steel-making, PVC manufacturing, and chemical processing.  Similarly, it’s also used in the production of high-fructose corn syrups. HCL, while being versatile and widely used is also highly corrosive which makes maintaining supply and hauling a challenge.  

The History

HLC wasn’t always as widely used as it is today. Fuming Hydrochloric Acid’s  history can be traced back to the Middle Ages when common salt was mixed with “Oil of Vitriol” (Sulphuric Acid) to produce Hydrochloric Acid.  The word ‘Muriatic’ literally means ‘pertaining to salt or brine’.  Fast forward a few hundred years and HCL made its recorded debut in the 17th century.  However, it was not until market forces during Industrial Revolution, and an increased demand for alkaline products, that large-scale production of Fuming Hydrochloric Acid took place. Along with the large-scale production of HLC came large-scale needs for corrosion resistant vessels and piping for production, chemical storage, and transportation.

How corrosive is HLC?

In concentrations above 25%, HCL is considered highly corrosive and must be handled with extreme care and caution.  In concentrations of approximately 35% and higher, HCL is referred to as fuming HCL or fuming Muriatic Acid. 

Special requirements for handling, transporting, and storing HLC

When handling, transporting or storing HCL it is essential that is kept cool, dry and well ventilated. Industry specific drainage, venting, and corrosion resistant flooring can also present barriers to safe HCL storage. When storing or transporting HCL in large quantities, you must have a non-reactive, corrosion resistant chemical storage tank, pipe, vessel, or basin. 

The Solution

Fiber Resistant Polymers (FRP) provide a high quality, durable, strong, corrosion resistant solution to this problem. At Beetle all of our FRP pipe, tanks, vessels, and containers for corrosive fluid services have a corrosion barrier or liner. The type and thickness of this corrosion barrier/liner depends upon the specific service environment.

FRP is an ideal solution not just because of its corrosion resistance, but also because of its versatility. FRP custom tanks, pipes, or vessels can come in a wide variety of sizes from ½” to 14’ in diameter. Also, custom FRP corrosion resistant piping is lightweight when compared to other materials and can be fine-tuned to fit tanker trucks and detailed to meet specific esthetic requirements.  The high quality, durability, strength, corrosion resistance, and customization all make FRP an ideal solution for the challenges associated with HLC.